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Variable endothelial cell function restoration after initiation of two antiretroviral regimens in HIV-infected individuals

13/02/2017

Autors: P. Echeverría, E. Gómez-Mora, S. Roura, A. Bonjoch, J. Puig, N. Pérez-Alvarez, A. Bayés-Genís, B. Clotet, J. Blanco and E. Negredo

Revista: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Background: The effect of ART on endothelial cell function is incompletely characterized.

Methods: We performed a 24 week prospective, case–control and comparative pilot study of ART-naive HIVinfected patients who started a darunavir- or rilpivirine-based regimen, matched with non-HIV-infected volunteers, to compare changes at week 24 from baseline in levels of circulating endothelial cells (CECs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating angiogenic cells, as well as changes in immune-activation markers.

Results: The study population comprised 24 HIV-infected patients and 24 non-infected volunteers. Both HIV groups completely suppressed viraemia. HIV-infected patients had higher levels of activation markers than the control group in CD8 T cells at baseline; these decreased after 24 weeks of treatment, but without reaching the levels of the control group. No statistical differences in immune activation were seen between the darunavir and rilpivirine groups. Levels of CECs were higher and levels of EPCs and circulating angiogenic cells were lower in HIV-infected patients than in the control group, although these parameters were similar between the darunavir group and the control group, but not the rilpivirine group, at week 24. An unfavourable association was observed between rilpivirine, age and increased number of CECs.

Conclusions: Restoration of circulating levels of EPCs and CECs in darunavir-treated patients was greater than in those treated with rilpivirine, suggesting ongoing endothelial repair mechanisms.